Sunday, April 09, 2006

In Vivo Robots for Remote surgery

A team of researchers from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and University of Nebraska Medical Center had recently came up with small robots that could have the potential to revolutionize the way minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is performed. Some of the early prototypes used for testing are shown in the figure below. These medical responders of the future will be at most the size of a lipstick and can be driven remotely around inside the human body to perform tasks like stopping internal bleeding by clamping, clotting or cauterizing wounds. These will be the first robots that actually work from inside the body.
Conventionally, to perform similar operations, one of the surgical techniques used is laparoscopic. In this technique, a small incision is made and a camera is inserted through this incision to provide visual feedback of the operative field. To manipulate the tissues, another long instruments with surgical tools attached to the tip are then inserted through the opening. The benefits of such operations are that there will be minimum operative blood loss and post operative pain. Due to the small incision made for the operation, the recovery time is also shorter.
However, the benefits of laparoscopy are limited to less complex procedures. This is because of the reduced access of such a surgery. Reduced access reduces dexterity, limits perception, increases strain and the likelihood of error, and lengthens procedure times. The operative field is visualized through an electronic interface, and tissue manipulation is performed with long instruments that impose severe ergonomic limitations. The long, rigid instruments and cameras typically used in laparoscopic surgery are constrained to only four degrees of freedom (three rotations and in-out translation) through the entry incision. This prevents the ability to orient the tool tips arbitrarily. Dexterity is significantly reduced because of the lost degrees of freedom and because of motion reversal due to the fulcrum effect at the entry point. Therefore there are limitations on the amount of dexterity and visualization a surgeon has for more complex operations.
To overcome the limitations of dexterity and visualization of laparoscopy, the robots invented by the researchers are small, about 3 inches tall, and are wheeled. They can be inserted totally through standard laparoscopic ports into the body and controlled by surgeons in different locations through computer. Each of the robots will be fitted with a certain tool for carrying out a certain function. For example one such robot maybe fitted with cameras and lights to provide pictures of the operative field to the surgeons while others may be equipped with surgical tools for making incisions or to deliver medicine depending on the tasks. “These remotely controlled in vivo robots provide the surgeon with an enhanced field of view from arbitrary angles, as well as provide dexterous manipulators not constrained by small incisions in the abdominal wall,” Dr. Oleynikov, M.D., director of education and training for the minimally invasive and computer-assisted surgery initiative.
Tests conducted on animals have shown very positive results and performances. Although still in the testing stage, the implication of such an application is far reaching. NASA already has plan to use such a system for its future space mission to attend to astronaut that needs medical attention in space. These robots also have potential use in the battle field where surgeon could remotely help to treat soldiers at the front line.


Exploration said...
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Exploration said...

Pang Sze Yong u0204779

Putting these robots into a patient's body makes me wonder about how they can be extracted after the surgery.

2 of the 3 robots shown in the diagram appear to be wired and I believe they can be extracted simply by pulling them out, however the 3rd robot show appears to be unwired, with no indication how it can be extracted after the surgery.

On top of that, how does the unwired robot recieve instructions? Or relay information back to the surgeon? Does conventional wireless communication methods apply here?

Medical said...

u0204610 Andy Tan

The robots shown in the picture are initial protypes and the wires attached to them are use to provide power and command signal to them while they are moving in the body.

In the final product the robot will be self contained with batteries and motors built in for traversing the abdominal cavity.It will be able to move according to a preprogramed path or by wireless remote control by a user on a joystick. The cameras integrated on them will also beam back image to give the user a clearer picture of the operative field.

So I guess the robots will crawl out from the incision after they have completed their mission haahaa is that cool or what?!

Anonymous said...

And now they are inserting robots INTO the human body to perform operations...sounds cool..

Medical said...

U0204500 Ong Phian Ting

From the article, its seem that these robot are inserted through the wound or a incision. Then how do they move about in the body? Do they move about in the artery or in the flesh? If they use wheels, they would definately have to move in the blood vein, but wouldn't that block the flow of the blood? And if they move in the flesh, how to they actually moves about? How can they move from one body part to the other?

Sorry about posting so many questions, but i really think this is a area that has great potential. However, the article in the link does not seem to mention anything about the motion of the robots.

Medical said...

U0204808 Li Junsheng

While the thought of having robotic agents crawling through your body is .. well .. skin-crawling and stomach-churning, the potential of having them as scouts or to function in hard-to-reach places should well-worth the discomfort. Now, the novel thing would be to have them move around and function autonomously, and getting themselves discharged after completing their tasks or after a set time.